Archive for the ‘Dark Matter’ Category

Does the Sun have a Positive Charge?

September 23, 2018

While I was reading about Venus’ atmosphere, and how the tremendous heat had split apart the hydrogen from water molecules and sent them off into space at escape velocity, I started thinking about the Sun’s plasma.

Hot gases are interesting, in relationship to how fast each molecule is moving. Small, light molecules move very quickly, while heavier molecules slog along at a slower pace in the same gas. So, in the formula  KEAVG=½ mv2=3/2*k*T, where k is Boltzmann’s constant and KEAVG is the average molecular kinetic energy, you can see right away that for a given temperature, the smaller the mass of the particle, the higher the velocity. So, if a particle in a gas is 100 times larger than another particle, you’d expect the smaller particle to be moving √100 = 10 times as fast.

So, back to the Sun. The Sun has a plasma atmosphere, that is, it’s mostly dissociated electrons and protons and other stripped atomic nuclei. Electrons are about 1/2000 the mass of a proton, so we expect that their average velocity in the atmosphere of the Sun is going to be √2000 faster that the average proton, or roughly 45 times as fast.

What this suggests to me is that, in the solar wind, most of the particles that actually reach escape velocity from the Sun (all suns) are going to be the electrons by a large margin. This also tells me that most of the particles that reach escape velocity from our galaxy are also going to be electrons.

So, some general figures to keep in mind; the escape velocity from our general region of the galaxy is about 537 km/s. Our Sun happens to be moving about 220 km/s around the perimeter, so particles would only have to be leaving our Sun’s heliosphere at about 317 km/s to escape the galaxy. The escape velocity from the Sun’s surface is around 618 km/s, and the solar wind (protons and electrons) supposedly passes by the Earth at about 400 km/s, though as we may discover, this isn’t exactly true. The escape velocity from the Solar System, if you start from Earth orbit, is only 42 km/s, much lower than the 400 km/s stream of particles flying by our planet.

I’m speculating that the solar wind consists of very fast electrons and much slower protons; if they were moving at the same speed, they would recombine into hydrogen. And since the electrons are moving much, much faster than the protons, I’m also speculating that a lot more electrons escape from the Sun than protons.

Over a long period of time, the Sun should become positively charged as more electrons than protons escape into interstellar space and intergalactic space.

One might look at the velocities, and think, well, hey, if the protons are moving at 400 km/s, they’re all going to escape the Sun’s gravity, too, and the balance of charge will be maintained! But they aren’t all traveling at this high speed; there’s something called the Boltzmann velocity distribution curve for particles in a gas, and some fraction of those protons aren’t going to make the necessary 42 km/s as they pass by Earth; they’re going to fall back into the sun. The electrons, as we noted, are probably moving 42 times as fast, on average, as the protons, so a much smaller number of them are going to be trapped by the Sun’s gravity. Likewise, a lot more electrons will escape our galaxy than protons.

Wow, the number 42 sure does pop up a lot. I wonder if that means anything?

Anyway, we speculate that a lot more electrons will escape from the Sun than protons. This would have some interesting side-effects.

The Sun, being positively charged, is going to be pushing and accelerating protons in the solar wind. The surplus interstellar electrons will be pulling on these same protons. Likewise, the motion of the electrons in the solar wind will be retarded due to the positive charge of the Sun. Eventually, I would expect some sort of balance, while still maintaining a net positive charge on the Sun. Somewhere out there in the heliosphere, the proton and electron velocities would finally match up, allowing them to merge into hydrogen.

I read recently that there is a yet-unexplained acceleration of the solar wind away from the Sun. Perhaps this charge imbalance is related to that.

So, we have a cloud of surplus electrons in between the galaxies. We have another cloud, probably denser, of interstellar electrons within our galaxy, between the suns. And we have positively charges suns stuck in this rotating cloud like a plum pudding. Over billions of years, I’d expect the intergalactic cloud to get denser, pushing the galaxies apart as one high-velocity electron wind smashed into others, and the field pushed the galaxies apart. Could this be interpreted as the acceleration of the separation of galaxies in the universe that we see and attribute to dark energy? I have no idea. Could the plum-pudding of positive charges (stars) imbedded in a rotating negatively-charged galactic cloud appear to be more massive than it really is, as it rotates within the universe’s own electron field? I also have no idea. I’m not an astrophysicist, or a plasma physicist, or any of the other useful fields that could actually answer these questions.

ADDENDA: I tried to look up velocity distributions for electrons and protons in a solar wind. The new Parker Probe, just launched, will probably be measuring this, and the GOES satellite and ACE measured this. Looking at the ACE SWEPAM experiment live data, it looks like electrons and protons have, on average, roughly the same electron-volt values, which, as I suggested earlier, would mean that electrons are moving a lot faster than the protons, which would give us results as described. But I don’t know how good the data is, or if I interpreted it correctly.

If you like this speculation, be sure to check out my SF short stories listed at my website.

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Zero Gradient Gravity Fields, Dark Matter, and the Formation of Stars

May 17, 2018

We’ve mentioned in the past (to ourselves) that the formula for the Schwarzschild radius for a black hole, c2=2GM/rs tells us that no matter how thinly distributed a mass is, (such as 1 atom per cubic centimeter), if you have a large enough sphere of it, it will have a Schwarzschild radius when viewed from outside that volume. You can see this just by shuffling the equation around a little, so that c2/2G, which is a constant, equals M/r, the mass over the radius. For any given density, the mass, M increases with the cube of the radius, so for any given density, you can always find a radius that contains enough mass to equal the value c2/2G. Cute, huh?

I struggled for awhile wondering if an infinite 3D field of particles (which would appear to be flat gravitationally, that is, not have a gradient), would allow for overlapping apparent black hole horizons; everywhere you looked, there would be large, overlapping, spherical volumes that had enough mass to become black holes. Could this be our apparent cosmological horizon? But today (5/12/18) it occurred to me that the key feature of a black hole is that it has a gravitational gradient. You have to work to get out of the gravity well, or the idea of an event horizon is meaningless. But an infinite field of equally distributed mass has no gradient. It appears flat. Ergo, no event horizon, no matter the density.

Cruising along in deep space, there is, in essence, the same amount of mass pulling on you from all sides, that tenuous 1 atom per cm3. It could just as well be 10 atoms, or 100, or a million, with no noticeable effect. Once we attained a velocity, we would maintain that velocity – an object in motion remaining in motion. The interstellar gas would eventually slow you down, but it would take a very ong time.

Working with the 1 atom/cm3 extending to infinity, let’s say we superimpose another huge sphere of 1 atom/cm3 gas on top of that, so huge that it provides you with an event horizon (if I’ve done my math right, it would amount to roughly 1.5×105 light years in radius, or a ball 0.3 million light years in diameter). Now there is a mass and a very small gravity gradient. Is the event horizon based on the 2 atoms/cm3, or the 1 atom/cm3 density? We’ve already seen that the original 1 atom/cm3 field provides no gradient, so it would make sense that the only effect to the observer is to see the event horizon created by the new 1 atom/cm3 superimposed on the existing field; the other previously existing field is completely flat and cancels out.

However, the new field created by the new mass is going to affect both the old mass (1 atom of hydrogen per cm3 everywhere) and the new mass (1 atom per cm3 in the giant sphere). The object will form with twice the mass (in this case) predicted by the theory. When it’s first put in front of us, we will measure a mass represented by the 1 atom/cm3 in that volume. As it collapses and takes the background mass with it, it will finally produce a mass that accounts for the 2 atoms/cm3 that we actually started with. While it’s doing this, it will also be backfilling the area that it vacated with more interstellar gas, as that gas is also being pulled in by the gravity of the developing black hole, so the overall density of the universe will appear mostly unchanged, even around the black hole.

Practically speaking, this would be more likely to happen in a nebula, where the density is much higher.

One of the most interesting things about this process is that if there is an undetectable mass-type in the universe (like dark matter) that only interacts with regular matter through gravitation, and it’s distributed equally everywhere, then objects that form (planets, Suns, black holes) will also pull in this other mystery mass. As described above, the tenuous gas (1 particle per cc) that we currently measure may actually mass 2 or 10 or 100 particles per cc. We wouldn’t know since the field is flat. Since this new mass doesn’t react with normal matter, it will clump in the center of the object (although it may have its own chemistry and volume that prevent excessive density). Small objects existing on a larger mass (like humans), would have the dark matter pulled out of them, and when we performed tests like The Cavendish experiment to measure the gravitational constant, it would give us a good value for G for normal matter, and would give us erroneous results for the masses of the planets and the Sun. We would think the core is made of denser matter than it really is, both in the Sun and Earth. We know the mass of the Earth, but a substantial chunk could be dark matter and we’d never know it. Perhaps the iron core is made of silicon at half the molecular weight (which is interesting, because magma is 50% silicon dioxide, and only 9% ferrous oxide).

However, most objects that have formed in the last few million years are going to have some dark matter as part of their core. They have gravity, and any dark matter out there will be attracted to it just like regular matter, until an object forms which is part dark and light matter. This includes asteroids. Eventually, we’re going to move an asteroid, and when we do, the acceleration is going to leave the dark core behind. We may not notice it unless we’re looking for it, or if it’s a substantial enough part of the mass that we detect a mass-change in the object as it’s propelled. We would end up with two objects; the obvious light-matter asteroid, and the invisible dark-matter asteroid that could only be detected with a gravitational gradiometer. It would change the way we thought about the universe.