Archive for the ‘Physics’ Category

A Variant Geometry for Spacetime

September 18, 2017

There are a lot of odd characteristics of existing spacetime physics, creating a lot of questions that are difficult or impossible to answer, such as, “Why is the speed of light approximately 300,000 km/s?” or “Why can’t you go faster than the speed of light?” or “Is there such a thing as a tachyon?” Or, “If you can’t go faster than the speed of light, how is it possible to age only 4 months due to time dilation while traveling 4 light years?” I hope to offer an alternate geometry to provide some reasonable answers to these questions.

Let’s start with some fundamental concepts about photons. It’s generally believed that photons are their own antiparticles, and also that the speed of light is the ultimate speed past which nothing can travel. Also, in a photon’s frame of reference, the distance from source to destination appears to be zero, and it takes zero time to travel that distance. This led me to speculate that light might, in fact, travel at an infinite speed, and that somewhere out there, there is a geometry in 4D space-time where that makes sense, where, when we try to measure it, we see light ambling along at a tedious 300,000 km/s. It would also explain why you can’t travel faster than the speed of light; the speed is, in fact, infinite. It’s really hard to go faster than that. The difficulty lies in finding that geometry. My second supposition regarding photons is that they are always emitted perpendicular to the path of travel (through time) of the originating particle. In a standard space-time diagram, assuming a velocity of c, this leads to the light cone diagram. In the new geometry, assuming an infinite photon speed, the picture is a little different, but still leads to the well-known equations we are used to.

Figure1

Looking at Figure 1, the vertical line A represents the source of photons a and b, which travel instantaneously to the observer on line B. Line B observes the two events a and b separated by time ct2, and from B’s perspective, the object has moved away a distance x, which equals a-b. In A’s proper time, the time between the two events is merely c time t, and the distance is zero, so the interval is s=ct1. From B’s proper time, the duration is ct2 and the distance A has traveled away from him is x, so the measured interval between the two events is s=√(ct22-x2), which should be familiar to everyone.

Figure2

In Figure 2, we see what happens as B gets closer to the X axis. But it still produces the common formula for the interval. What the diagram does not explain is why the speed of light appears to be roughly 300,000 km/s.

However, what Figure 1 can do is allow us to derive the standard time dilation formula:

∆t1=∆t2/√(1-v2/c2)

How do we get there?

Note the velocity of B away from A is

v=x/t2

 So x2=(vt2)2

From before, we had s=ct1 in A’s reference frame and s=√(ct22-x2) from B’s perspective. Set the two equations equal, and we get

(ct1)2=(ct2)2-x2

Substituting for x2 we get

(ct1)2=(ct2)2-(vt2)2

 Divide it all by c2 and pull the t2 out of the two terms on the right gives us

(t1)2=(t2)2•(1-v2/c2)

Or, ∆t1=∆t2•√(1-v2/c2), which should be familiar to a lot of you out there. It’s the standard formula for time dilation due to relative velocity.

So Figure 1 works out that if the line is at a 45 degree angle, then v=c/√2, which shouldn’t be a surprise. And as v gets closer and closer to c, then the graph gets flatter and flatter. But this graph is based on the idea that c is infinite. Why is it that when we measure it, it’s always 300,000 km/s? Clearly, if you set up an experiment that bounces light back and forth between mountain tops, and c=∞, then your test should show that light moves instantaneously. Not 300,000 km/s. And yet, we always measure c at the same boring 300,000 km/s (yeah, I know this isn’t exact value-it’s 299792.458 km/s. Get over it-this is easier to type).

So what is it that makes an infinitely fast photon measure as a finite number in all frames of reference? Is it the expansion of spacetime? Is it the curvature of spacetime due to gravity affecting the value of c that we measure? Is it that this theory is just wrong? I don’t know yet – this would obviously have to be resolved before this model made any sense, and may or may not appear in a later entry. Any speculations about this are welcome.

 

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A Fool’s Physics

September 18, 2017

I’ve read a lot of physics in my life and have a lot more to read, a lot more to learn. It’s hard to read any general physics text without stumbling across some interesting tidbit that makes me sit back and ponder how that tidbit fits in with my mental model of the universe. Some things make sense, some don’t. When I heard of the Unruh effect, I was dumbfounded (to my understanding, this is the emergence of energy out of a vacuum relative to an accelerating object). When I learned that photons are their own antiparticles, I was confused. When I realized that the time component in the spacetime interval produces a hyperbolic curve in the formula, it was an enlightenment years in the coming. When I read that antiparticles are just regular particles going backward in time (Feynman, I think), that, too, messed with my mental models of the universe. To say nothing of dark matter, the accelerating expanding universe, and so on. So, I try to organize all this hodge-podge of apparently related information into a single model that makes sense. As most physicists will tell you, it is an insurmountable task. But, I am not a physicist, really. I have a Masters in Astronautical Engineering, and as Sheldon Cooper would tell you, I’m really just an engineer. I create mental models that make sense to me, but may not have any practical use or truth in the larger sense of things. But we all have to start somewhere. I’ll keep reading, and revise the incorrect bits as I go along.

In this log of ramblings, I’ll offer up a bunch of foolish ideas on physical reality. I’m a big fan of determinism, so be forewarned. I also think of time as an actual, physical dimension. If you happen to join me on this warped (!) journey of speculation, I’d love for you to tear my arguments apart, tell me what’s wrong, and perhaps help shape the speculations into something that makes a coherent sense of reality, or assure their demise.

Causality Paradox? What causality paradox?

September 11, 2017

I can’t call this real physics, this is just pure and wild speculation. I had a funny idea today about whether or not you can go back in time and shoot your grandfather, thus keeping yourself from ever being born. Ethical questions aside, I thought of a possible solution to the whole “paradox” issue.

First, if you aren’t familiar with the Grandfather Paradox, you can read up on the subject at Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandfather_paradox.

Start with the idea that we are always travelling at the speed of light. You, the Sun, the Earth, your brother Bob, everything is travelling at the speed of light through the time dimension, all going the same direction so your relative speed is zero. This is a pretty common concept in modern physics, so I’m not going to expand on that here. Just more physics weirdness.

So, let’s say I get the dubious urge to go murder my grandfather at some time in the past, before I was born. Using some fantastic time machine, I go back in time to when Grandpa was just a young fella and shoot him. What happens then?

Well, imagine that space and time are a 4-dimensional matrix, but that changes made in the matrix can only propagate forward at the speed of light. Remember, that’s how fast we move through time. Eventually, the change (where I no longer exist) reaches the point where I would have gone back in time, but the particles that would have made up my body go shooting forward past that point and never go back. Well, they aren’t “shooting forward” so much as redirecting the world line of their old path at the speed of light. Now, instead of making a U-turn and heading toward their fate with my grandfather, the bullet-magnet, they continue forward in time. The old worldline going backwards collapses/disappears at the speed of light and eventually catches up to where Granddad is, and lets him live. I’m born again! And I foolishly decide, again, to go back in time and kill my granddad.

What does this result in? An oscillation. The world line shifts back and forth between the two realities, carrying the data from both possible realities, like a sine wave on a current. Just as a single electrical sine-wave can contain positive and negative values as it propagates through a wire, so can events toggle on a worldline as that worldline propagates through time. Even past the point where I made my fateful decision, the world line is toggling back and forth; both realities are true, taking their turn as the decision I made causes both of them to be real. The duration of this toggling or oscillation would be twice the duration of the time from when I went back in time to when I snuffed Gramps; the duration of the whole loop.

It’s my belief (not necessarily shared by many others) that we live in a four-dimensional space time that exists perpetually as a 4D matrix, and that what we perceive as our consciousness exists at each point along that worldline. There is the version of you that you perceive now, and the version that existed when you kissed your wife for the first time, savoring the moment you’ve forgotten. Kind of a repetitive immortality.

But what I’m suggesting above is that multiple realities can exist on a single worldline; you don’t need multiple universes dividing every time a critical decision is made or a quantum observation collapses a wave function, or a bit of antimatter goes back in time and changes an existing chemical configuration. Both events occur and exist on a changing, fluctuating, dynamic 4D worldline. There’s the version of you that remembers killing your Grandfather, and the version that never existed, propagating through time, one behind the other forever on the oscillating world line.

The normal view of a 4D worldline is of a static deterministic universe, bound by the future and past configuration of an unchanging worldline. Another view is that every decision, human or quantum, splits the universe into a multiverse, a crowded infinity of infinities. This version allows us to stick with one universe, but to modulate our worldline to allow multiple realities to exist along a single timeline.

Possibly, an outside observer could interface with either version of your reality, based on where he encounters your worldline from his own worldline. Could that be the “collapse of the wavefunction” we talk about? Good grief, that would make the Schroedinger’s Cat conundrum actually possible. Dead and alive! I always thought of it as complete nonsense.

One issue with this model is that each worldline, as it moves from one reality to another, may have to move instantaneously from the collapsed worldline to the new worldline. I think. No real way to test it, that I can imagine. Mmm…maybe pick a subatomic decay process that can have multiple durations, then have someone record the decay time data, then take off (with that data) somewhere at high-speed so your worldline is no longer in sync with the experiment’s original timeline, fast enough that the time separation is greater than the decay time variance. Then, come back and see if the recorded time is the same as it was before; you’ll have two sets of readings of the duration of a single decay, and they might not agree. Wouldn’t that be something?

 

Background Gravity – Time Dilation in a Flat Field

August 11, 2017

I got into an argument with a physics buddy not that long ago (a year, maybe), about gravity. We have an intermittent arrangement where we go drink beer and talk about physics at two or three pubs in San Luis Obispo. Usually, the physics becomes a little less coherent as the evening wears on.

One of the discussions centered on whether there is a “background field” of gravity or not, or whether it’s even sensible to discuss such a thing since, in an infinite field of equally distributed mass (or gas, or 1 atom per cubic light year, whatever), all the forces around you seem to cancel out. The mass of the universe to your left is equal in size to the mass of the universe on your right; you feel a net acceleration of zero. I argued that even though the field was “flat”, there was still a field there. He argued that a field implied a gradient; there is always a force.

We did not come to a satisfactory conclusion. It might merely have been the fact that we were defining the same terms in different ways in our heads. I’m not sure. I thought my argument was rock-solid.

So, here is my side of it.

Some of you are probably familiar with Newton’s Shell Theorem. It’s in his Principia Mathematica, and if I remember right, he solved it without using calculus. Basically, what it says is this; if you are inside a spherically symmetric shell of mass, then you feel no gravity pulling you any direction. It’s a bit non-intuitive. Let’s say the Earth is hollow, and the entire planet’s mass has been compressed into a thin spherical shell a few centimeters (or meters, it doesn’t matter) thick. If you are floating around in your Nike Space Suit inside this shell, you will not be pulled toward the center, or the inner surface of the shell, or anywhere else inside the shell. Wherever you are put, you will remain.

Personally, I think this is one of the coolest theorems ever.

It’s also true that if you are outside the surface of a spherically symmetric planet, then it doesn’t matter how dense it is, at a given radius you will feel the pull of a certain amount of gravity. If you are in orbit above the Earth, and the Earth suddenly becomes a black hole of the exact same mass, you will remain in orbit, totally unaffected by that change. That’s pretty cool, too. Given that the gravitational force is based on F=GMm/r2, this should be kind of obvious. Neither your mass (m) or the mass of the Earth (M) has changed, your orbital radius is the same, and G is the gravitational constant. Ergo, the density of the object you are orbital at a radius “r” from the center of the object is irrelevant.

So, that was me drifting from the actual subject. Shell Theorem—let’s get back to that.

As you might know, the clock of anyone in a gravity field runs slower than that of a clock outside of that gravity field. This is called gravitation time dilation (and is equal to ∆t’ = ∆t √(1-2MG/rc2) for a non-rotating sphere). A person on Earth actually ages slower than a person in deep space, according to relativity. This was verified with clocks flying around the Earth in the Hafele-Keating experiment. Before you ask, yes, they took into account Earth’s rotational speed, the speed of the airplane (in both directions relative to Earth’s rotation) with regard to Special Relativity’s time dilation due to velocity. It was a nice experiment.

Let’s say we’re using a hollow Earth from Newton’s shell theorem. As you get closer to the Earth, you are in a deeper gravity well, and the outside observer sees your clock slow down. There’s a small hole in the planet, and you pass into the planet, where everything is pulling you in opposite directions equally, so you seem to feel no force. And yet, your time dilation effect does not suffer a discontinuity, jumping suddenly to that of the outside observer. You are in a denser gravity field, but a flat gravity field. [to the physics majors out there, for god’s sake, if my terminology sucks, please correct me]. Your time dilation will be just the same as if you were standing on the surface of the planet.

So now you have a flat gravitational field (no “force” pulling you in one direction, that is, all forces pulling you equally in all directions). And yet, even in this apparent lack of gravity, where you can’t actually tell that you’re in a gravity well, your time runs slower than the time of someone far from the planet.

I extended this argument to the rest of the universe. If mass was distributed equally around you, even though you felt no force one way or the other, there would still be a background gravitational field. Gravitational time dilation implies a gradient; for time dilation to be relevant, you need someone in a weaker gravitational field measuring your time. However, both the measured and the measurer can be in locally flat gravitational fields.

Does a flat gravitational field curve spacetime by itself? Or is it only the gradient between two different gravitational fields that curves spacetime? My general opinion is that you don’t need the gradient for the curvature of spacetime. If you have an infinite universe with equally distributed mass, then from some arbitrary center, it will appear to curve spacetime until it closes the dimensions of universe into closed loops, like the inside surface of an event horizon (though other arbitrary centers will have different, yet overlapping event horizons – a subject I will touch upon another day).

How would you test the curvature of space inside a shell? I’m not entirely sure. I think the universe we have is a good test case, however.

Particle Pair Production in Deep Space

August 6, 2017

Many of you know that a matter-antimatter reaction results in a pair of gamma rays. Fewer of you will know that you can take a couple of gamma rays, run them into each other, and get a pair of matter-antimatter particles. This has been done experimentally, and there’s a bit of data about it under “Two Photon Physics” in Wikipedia. Generally, if a subatomic reaction can occur, then it’s reversible. Maybe not statistically probable, but still reversible. This is a concept I used in a story I recently sold to Analog SF. In an area of space with high-density, high energy gamma rays, you’ll get a lot of positrons and anti-protons produced (more positrons, since they are 1/2000th the mass, of course), but there will also be some small production of antihydrogen if the antimatter doesn’t recombine right away with normal matter. And the antihydrogen may be neutral enough to survive and drift in deep space for a while, maybe long enough to be used as a resource.

Some reactions result in the release of more than two photons. A particle and antiparticle meet, three photons are emitted. The photons are lower energy, but the reverse reaction, 3 photons meeting, is a much, much lower probability than 2 photons (gamma rays) meeting. Still, on rare occasions, it might happen.

In fact, it’s my belief that if you have enough photons, even low-energy photons, passing through the same bit of space at the same time, you can also have pair-production, spitting out particles and antiparticles. One calculation for photons from the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) estimates 400 photons per cubic centimeter, average, plus whatever higher-energy visible light and gamma rays pass through from billions of stars. And there are a lot of cubic centimeters in a light-year (about 4.9 x 1050). Even if the probability of pair production is very, very low, I still imagine that it would happen on occasion.

As a side-note, the probability of a positron and electron meeting in deep space is very high, since they attract one another, while the probability of two gamma rays meeting at just the right time in just the right way is fairly low. The reaction looks symmetric, but the probability of it happening in a certain direction is much higher one way than the other. Ditto for any two-particle reaction that creates three particles. This contributes to the increased entropy of the universe and the “arrow of time”; there’s a preferred direction for these subatomic reactions to occur.

LOOKING ALL THE WAY BACK IN TIME

July 31, 2017

If you look back in time, (up in the night sky, at the light emitted from galaxies billions of years ago), you are actually looking at an earlier version of the universe when it was smaller.

images-3

Due to the nature of how light moves through space, when you look back 14 billion years to the farthest reaches of the universe, you are actually looking at a very small volume. But the image, warped as it is, is spread out and fills the farthest regions of the sky, like a view through a concave lens. If you were able to look all the way back to the tiny point of the Big Bang, the image would be smeared and spread out across the 14 billion light-year shell, any detail of the event washed out by turning the fine detail of a tiny event into a picture the size of the universe.

So, when you look up at the night sky, everywhere you look in the blackness of deep space, 14 billion light years away, is actually the same small point.

Does this make sense? I’m trying to think of a good analogy for this, but it just isn’t coming to me. Maybe like starting with a tiny drawing on the surface of a tiny sheet of rubber, then stretching it out so that the sheet of rubber stretches all around you in a sphere, like the inside of a balloon, and then trying to figure out what the original picture looked like.

This, of course, begs the question of what physicists are calculating when they measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. If the universe was physically smaller 14 billion years ago, and now the remaining image of it is spread out over a sphere with a radius of 14 billion light years, that’s going to come off as an acceleration; the farther you look, the smaller the original volume and the more the image is spread out over the apparent warped view of the current volume. And, of course, 14 billion years ago, the universe actually was expanding a lot faster than it is now. It’s a double-whammy of accelerations. Most physicists are a hell of a lot smarter than me, so I’m guessing that both these accelerations have been calculated into the “accelerating expansion of the universe” equation. I can only speculate that there is a third element. I wish I could find out without wading through a lot of really obscure math.

Photons Dancing on the Head of a Match

May 1, 2014

Who cares about angels on the end of a pin? Let’s get real; how many photons are there on the end of a match?

There’s a lot of data out there to help us calculate this; one article says that the human eye can detect a candle in the dark at 30 miles. Isn’t that something? The same article says it takes at least 54 photons just for the human eye to register an event. So that match (or candle) has to get 54 photons into that fraction of your eye that actually receives and focuses the photons. But the whole eye doesn’t actually receive the photons; it’s just the black opening in the middle. The largest it ever gets is about 7 millimeters diameter, which is 38.5 square millimeters in area, or .385 square centimeters.

How many events can the human eye see in one second? If we’re looking at the match from 30 miles away, and it looks continuous, then we are receiving over 50 frames a second (though the human eye has been recorded as being able to discern and identify an image in 1/255th of a second, we’ll be conservative). If the image were less than 50 times per second, we would detect a choppiness in the image; still, overlap in the match’s photon emissions could turn a choppy image into a smooth one. But lets assume we get a continuous 54 photons, all the time, at least 50 times a second; anything less would look like a flicker off.

Now we have everything we need to calculate how many photons are coming off the head of a match!

Just put an eyeball…or just the iris, the bit that receives the light, in every spot in a 30 mile radius, add up the total number of irises, multiply by the 50 times-per-second, times the 54 photons per eyeball, and we should have the number we need.

The sphere of irises is 4*pi*r-squared. Or 4*3.14*30*30 = 11,310 square miles, or 29,292 square kilometers. Or 29,292,000,000 square meters. Or 292,920,000,000,000 square centimeters. Since each dissected eyeball (just the iris, you see) only takes up .385 square centimeters, that’s about 760,000,000,000,000 irises stuffed carefully into the perimeter of the sphere to capture all the photons.  Just as a point of interest, that’s about 50,000 times the number of human eyeballs on Earth. Guess we’ll be dissecting all the other animals, too. May as well start with fisheyes; they’re sort of gross to begin with.

Each of those eyes is gathering 54 photons at least 50 times a second, so we get to multiply the 760 million million by another 250-ish, giving us a grand total of about 190,000 million million photons off the head of a match every second. Or, just because I like a lot of zeros, 190,000,000,000,000,000 photons. Every second. From a freakin’ MATCH HEAD. We are awash in a photon bath.

Now, leave the darkness of night, and realize that when you walk outside, you are no longer looking at one tiny spot radiating onto 190 quadrillion eyes, now you have a hemisphere of 30 cubic miles of daylight radiating onto your eyeball. Well, okay, you can’t look at the hemisphere all at the same time. Your turn to do the math! How many photons are hitting your eye every second? Hint; it’s an absolute crapload of photons.

Billionaires of Mars

August 10, 2012

If you could write a check for a spaceship to Mars, would you?

That’s exactly the situation we have right now. There are over a hundred people on Earth right now with personal wealth weighing in at over $10 billion dollars. Gates has over $60 billion bucks available. Any one of these people with any interest at all in putting a colony on Mars, basically, owning Mars, could do so within a decade.

Robert Zubrin, an advocate of a unique mission profile, stated in an article, “…while Mars Direct might cost $30 to $50 billion if implemented by NASA, if done by a private outfit spending its own money, the out-of-pocket cost would probably be in the $5 billion range.” Wow. Five billion. And his mission profile advocates bringing people back, unlike the Mars One group from the Netherlands who wants to do a one-way mission to colonize the planet; of course, now you’re paying to take enough food and infrastructure for people to stay there.

The key point of this is that, given the will of one person (one very rich person), we could be standing on Mars in 10 years time. We could be living on Mars. The Mars rover, Curiosity, just did a radiation measurement that indicated levels are “not a showstopper”. About the same as low-Earth-orbit. Woo-hoo!

And most important of all, if this rich person has a brain, they can make money on the effort. Richard Branson ($4 billion) or Elon Musk ($2 billion) seem to already be heading this direction, building the infrastructure to get to space on their own terms and making money at it as they go (via Burt Rutan’s Scaled Composites, Virgin Galactic and SpaceX). The Mars One people talk about turning the mission into a media extravaganza, a reality show to beat all reality shows, an advertising blitz to beat all others. What would Pepsi pay to have their logo on the first manned lander? What would the first returned samples from Mars be worth to collectors? Can you imagine what actual fossils would be worth if they find them?

And you don’t even have to spend a cent developing the rockets to get you into Earth Orbit. Elon Musk has already done the design work; you can launch 10 Falcon Heavies for a billion dollars, delivering a half-million kg of fuel and hardware to low-Earth orbit.

Let’s look at the potential returns on this for a billionaire entrepreneur;

1. It’s been suggested that a $5-10 billion NASA X-Prize be offered for a private manned mission too Mars. Fine, but likely with lots of strings attached. Still, there it is; your entire mission paid for if you’re successful.

2. Advertising. This starts the moment you actually commit to the project. Just the televised weeding-out process for wannabee astronauts could bring in millions of dollars as a reality show. Competition between countries for seats on the rockets, Olympic fervor and excitement. That could last years. Licensing for games, the official mission logo plastered on every product on Earth, books, autographs from the team members, photo ops, speaking gigs (hey, you own those astronauts, part of the contract), product placements, donations for a variety of perks, or just donations…the list just goes on and on. If I were in advertising, I could make back the $5 billion in the 5 years before the first rocket left the launch pad. How many million-dollar stickers could you get on the side of your lander?

3. Building the rocket to get there, assembled in Earth orbit offers more advertising, more excitement, pay-per-view.

4. The trip there, of course, would be televised. Interviews would be sold. Unlike NASA’s model, nothing is free. Perhaps a bit more reality show programming and product placement advertising. Nothing like a Mars bar when you need a break from your EVA, is there?

5. And when you land, what is that worth? Renting out the copyrighted footage from the first manned landing? Aforementioned ad-space on your hardware? Commercial breaks? The knowledge that you’ll be getting royalties off this footage for the lifetime of the copyright? And the check you got from the country (or company, or person) that paid you off so their guy would be the first on Mars?

6. Experiment space could be sold for your arrival on Mars. Personal items or human ashes carried there and buried there. Designer bacteria could be taken along and tested in the Martian environment. Designer plant species, lichen and such, patented and ready for the colonists to spread around. If the colony was set up inside one of the many known lava tubes on the planet (such as those near Pavonis Mons), with solar collectors and solar pipes channeling the light inside, the colony would be surrounded by rock and safe from radiation. Lava tubes could provide huge living quarters with very little preparation.

7. And once you’re settled? Rent out your colonists. Tell us where you want to go, what samples you want collected, where you want that pickaxe swung. We’ll hop on our Martian bicycles and go check it out. Now that you’re there, anything you sell is just a bonus for you. For that matter, rent out little rovers with cameras. Sure, it’ll take 4 to 20 minutes for Earth-commands to go back and forth, but you know folks would rent time on them. Why stop there; super-light-weight flyers can be programmed to see all sorts of interesting things.

8. Property. Oh yeah, barring international agreements which won’t really apply to you since they can’t reach you, you own Mars. You want to buy 20 acres on Mars? We’ll sell it to you with a deed. It might be underwater when Mars starts to warm up, but that’s the risk you take. Lava tubes, now those are premium property! Create your own Government for your colony and claim it all. Work out deals with Earth governments so they don’t try to steal it all back. Better yet, sell them large swaths of Mars.

9. Sell support services for other colonists and countries. Once you prove it can be done, others will follow, and you can sell some of your infrastructure services (like a communications satellite, if you left one in orbit, you can rent bandwidth. Or a berth in your colony, if the new arrival wants to rent or buy a place to stay). Once they find out you’re trying to claim Mars for yourself, well, there won’t be any lack of newbies clamoring for a piece of the action, and they’ll all be paying you rent for your existing infrastructure.

10. Propellant; assuming you’ve tapped off of some of Zubrin’s brilliant ideas for making propellant from the Martian atmosphere, you can sell that to potential customers. Hey, we have water and propellant for sale! Come as you are. We have the supplies to send you back. For a price.

11. Patents on new minerals, compounds, and materials, and if you’re very, very lucky, microfossils. Unique gemstones on Mars? Who knows. Getting them back to Earth is a problem, but once your infrastructure is in place, heck, that’s a mission you could pay for with pocket change and make your money back ten-fold. Take stamps to Mars and ship them back.

12. And it gets stranger…once your colony is pressurized to 0.5 Earth-atmosphere in 1/3rd G, it’s time to pull out your sports-wings and fly around inside your 200-meter wide lava tube (yeah…they’re huge). You get to start your very own Martian sport. Which team will you bet on? Which Earth-network is going to pay to broadcast it? And Superbowl advertising for $4 million dollars per ad? You ain’t seen nothin’ yet.

Okay, sure I forgot some things. Let me know. Point is, we can go to Mars now; all we need is a billionaire with a dream and a marketing team that makes sure he remains a billionaire. After all, you’ll want to have money left over for that next colony.

UPDATE: Elon Musk (the Paypal billionaire) spoke at the Mars Society Convention in Pasadena last week, and expressed his interest in colonizing Mars, and making seats available for $500,000 a head for would-be colonists. Go, Elon! I might be too old to make the trip by the time this happens (being a spry 58 now), but at least I can make the trip vicariously! If you want to have your spirits bolstered by what he says, you can watch it here. Skip the Zubrin introduction – it’s lengthy.

Mass-creation From the Vacuum – Heisenberg Meets the 3-body Problem

March 27, 2010

I’ve been considering the conundrum of Mass-Energy conservation and the violation of this principle in light of the Big Bang. One of my friends described this as the “elephant in the room” with regard to the law of mass-energy conservation.

So we have to wonder if there are any existing mechanics that allow violation of this law. The first one that pops to mind is the Heisenberg time-energy relationship that allows virtual particles to pop into existence from the vacuum; the shorter the time, the greater the potential mass-energy. Sadly, the brief existence is confined to a duration so short that it’s impossible to detect, although certain effects, such as the Casimir effect, strongly suggest that virtual particle interactions are quite real (look it up on Wikipedia, if you’re curious).

Now put two of these virtual particle pair-productions adjacent to each other when they pop into existence (this has to happen some tiny fraction of the time) and the 4 particles produced are suddenly involved with the chaotic 4-body problem, interacting in such a way as to acquire stability before disappearing from our universe, potentially creating any variety of subatomic particles and pairs, half matter and half antimatter.

The net result is a continuous mass-creation with high-energy particles appearing from nowhere.

Your initial response will be, “Yes, but the antiparticles are going to combine with regular particles and annihilate a mass equal to that created.” Absolutely true. However, the energy produced will not be dragged back down into the closed-loop non-existence of a virtual particle. It will be released as two high-energy photons that go zipping around the universe and adding to the overall mass-energy of the universe, adding its little contribution to the light-pressure factor of its expansion.

Perhaps Fred Hoyle’s discounted steady-state universe still has a viable solution, and perhaps if we go back in time toward a Big Bang, we will find out that this mechanism decreases the mass of the universe so that there is no Big Bang at all, just a slow and continuous chaotic production of mass energy from the vacuum.

Perhaps it starting not with a bang, but a whisper (apologies to T.S. Eliot).