Posts Tagged ‘creationism’

God vs Evolution; Inherited Gene Mutations

November 21, 2010

The key to exposing those processes of evolution that appear completely nonsensical if attributed to an intelligent designer is to ask these two questions;

1. If God designed this, what would he likely have done? And
2. If the process of evolution produced this, what would be the end result?

A great example of this is the case of every living thing eating every other living thing just to survive. If I assume as a basic foundation that God is a loving, caring individual and really likes humans more than anything else, then one would have to guess that he would not design an entire ecosystem where the primary goal of each member of that system is to kill and eat one of the others. Humans are just “food” to a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites, scavengers, and large predators. While this appears to be a perfect characteristic for an evolutionary process of competitive consumption and mutation, it’s entirely moronic from the perspective of any sort of intelligent design. Add to this the fact that some vegetarian humans choose to avoid killing any other animals and it tells us that it is, in fact, possible to have an ecosystem where nothing kills anything. God was just too stupid to figure it out. There are quite literally thousands of species of scavengers and insects and plants that eat nothing but already-dead organics. Wouldn’t that be something; an ecosystem where animals would only eat each other after they died from other causes?

Of course, an evolutionist would argue that this could not stand; eventually one animal would evolve the brilliant trait of killing other animals to assure their timely death, drag the carcass off, and nibble on it only after it had decomposed to an edible state, like a pheasant hanging in front of a British butcher’s shop. Killing to eat, as you can see, is an inevitable state of evolution, not the hand of intelligent design. But this, again, assumes that an animal could naturally evolve at all without God’s thick fingers in the dough. Even if God had started with such a benevolent, non-violent system, mutation and evolution would inevitably have driven us in the direction that it has.

So, again, look at the questions; How would God design something, and how would evolution mould it?

Take genetics. There’s the obvious fact that every living thing, even viruses, use DNA, and use the same code sequences that all the other organisms do. The gene that makes haemoglobin in humans is very much like the gene that makes haemoglobin in pigs, and in fact can and has been spliced into pig DNA so that the pig had both human and pig haemoglobin coursing through its veins. The genes are just little strings of codes, and the fact that genes that do the same thing in each animal tend to be nearly identical should be a pretty obvious clue that evolution, with its accumulation of mutations, has been at work. However, the ID proponents will tell you that God has merely taken a good design and used it elsewhere, tweaking it for that particular organism.

So the ID argument is founded on the idea that God can apparently pick and choose what genes he wants to use in each animal. After all, he designed them, right? We might expect each animal to have its own unique genes, with common functions duplicated in between species as very similar genes.

But here’s the problem. If there are 5 genes in a Human, let’s just call them A, B, C, D, and E, and we compare them to their functionally equivalent genes in a muskrat, we would expect some variation between each pair of common genes in the two animals. If God can just pick and choose genes and tweak them to his heart’s content, we would expect the Human-A gene to be different from the Muskrat-A gene by some percentage, like 5%. Evolutionists would consider this 5% as an accumulation of mutations after splitting from a common ancestor. The B-gene might be 20% different, and the C-gene 50% different. And so on. God can pull genes from anywhere and do anything he wants with them. So any level of variance between two genes between two animals would be possible, right?

Wrong.

What we find is the answer to “what would evolution do?” question. If two animals descend from a common ancestor (well…they ALL do), then we would expect a certain mutation rate to occur in the genes of the each animal, a “molecular clock”. All the genes in the animal would maintain this same rate of mutation accumulation, being exposed to the same mutating environment, the same statistical distribution of unexpected change. What we would expect is that the 5 genes between human and muskrat would have roughly the same percentage difference for each pair of common genes.

This, not surprisingly, was the result of an experiment done by David Penny and published in 1985, using 5 genes which were so similar between species that they have the same name in each species (the experiment is described by Richard Dawkins in The Greatest Show on Earth, page 322). Except they checked the 5 genes across a group of 11 mammals. The results were as mentioned above; for a given pair of animals, the number of mutations in similar pairs of genes were consistently close to the same percentage across all 5 pairs of genes. Other experiments since then have expanded on Penny’s work, with similar results. Incontrovertibly, it points to the FACT that each pair of animals had a common ancestor and accumulated a statistical average of mutations since the speciation event occurred.

What it does NOT show is that God picked whatever gene he felt would help the animal survive best and slap it into the animal’s DNA matrix. This would have given totally different results, with a broad variance of mutations between pairs of similar genes.

This experiment, above and beyond any other experiment I’ve read about, proves beyond a doubt that ID is bogus, and evolution suitably describes exactly what we would expect. There is no intelligent designer picking and choosing; there is only a random, statistically averaged accumulation of mutations weeded out by competition and speciation events.

If this isn’t enough of a nail-in-the-cofffin for doubters, there is the issue of viral scarring in human DNA, which not only hammers in the last nail, but buries the coffin besides. Retroviruses have a nasty habit of inserting their own code into the human DNA sequence. Estimates are that 8% of human DNA (of the 95% that’s considered “junk DNA”) is viral in nature, inserted in the past by retroviruses. This portion of our DNA is, in essence, a fossil record of every virus that humans and their animal ancestors have had to fight during their long history.

It should be pretty clear even to ID proponents that God wouldn’t go out of his way to add inert viral sequences into our own DNA. However, just the fact of its existence is not the telling point (although it isn’t a bad point by itself).

Viral scarring in DNA shows up in the same place in the gene sequence in different creatures with whom we share a common ancestor. Apes and humans, humans and rats, if you look, you find that both species carry the signature of ancient viral attacks that left a physical scar behind, inserted in exactly the same place in the equivalent gene in both animals, a viral attack that occurred before the two species went their separate genetic ways from their common ancestor. Here you have two different animals that both just happen to have the same viral-scar in the same place in the equivalent gene in both their DNA sequences; only an evolutionary process can explain this.

The fabrication and rationalization of an ID proponent could only stretch so far before it shatters into nonsensical fragments while attempting to explain these evolutionary results. The fact of evolution is sealed in genetic documentation, a book merely waiting to be opened and translated into the history it provides.

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Silicon Based Lifeforms vs Creationists

July 23, 2010

Ever since the ground-breaking experiments of Urey and Miller, who proved it was possible for amino acids to spontaneously arise out of a laboratory-controlled “primordial soup” of inorganic chemicals, scientists have been racing to take the next step and find out just how the amino acids can become self-replicating organic strings. The importance of this is obvious. This would give us a continuous lineage from rocks to humans. Evolution in a nutshell, a complete package end-to-end with which to torment creationists.

Unfortunately, lacking this final detail in the string of continuity, mutation, and speciation, creationists will cling to this last vestige of their delusion like a drowning man rubbing a rabbit’s foot. Of course, they will do that anyway, even with absolute proof that evolution can stand on its own, and continue to perpetuate the lie that evolution is still grounded in Lamarkian concepts. Anyone who’s ever been on the receiving end of a Jehovah’s Witness tract knows just what I’m talking about – their sum total knowledge of evolution comes from the latest theories of the 1880s and the rants from their apparently uneducated pastors.

Even if scientists complete the experimental foundations of the RNA World, there will still remain skeptics who will blame the results on contamination from external sources, unless, of course, the carbon-based replicating organism is completely alien to anything that currently exists. But the odds of that are considered low; carbon compounds like to react with other carbon compounds in very specific ways that restrict the options available.

But why go this route? Why not select a version of life that can’t possibly be contaminated by Earthly life forms? For example, silicon (versus carbon) based life? Something that will provide incontrovertible proof that life can arise spontaneously in some of the nastiest conditions the universe can lob at us.

I’ve read a bit about the possibility of silicon-based life forms. Most people don’t think it’s possible, usually based on speculation about how silicon bonds with oxygen and can’t properly build long, strong chains like carbon does (not completely true – look up polysilanes). Most of these articles assume certain things; that oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and other low-level atoms are still going to be around for silicon to bond with, and that the temperature of the silicon-based chemistry will have to be about the same as our own. Silicon doesn’t do well at this temperature. Too hard, too short a chain, blah, blah, blah.

But to create a true silicon analog of the carbon based world, we have to eliminate the whole top line of the periodic chart (barring lithium – we need that). This might seem to be a crazy task until we look at Venus, which at a mere 600 degrees C, and with the aid of ultraviolet rays, has lost most of its hydrogen and oxygen into space. It has very little water left. However, for a silicon analog to exist, with no carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen or helium to pollute its atmosphere, we would need a fairly small planet with a surface temperature of over 1000 degrees C. Taking a look at the next row down on our periodic charts, we can see that the analog to H20 would be Li2S, oceans of dilithium sulfide (not to be confused with dilithium crystals, which are used in starships). This happens to melt at about 950 degrees C. The second row in the chart below nitrogen is phosphorus. P2 gas forms from P4 at over 800 C, which works just great for us as our analog to N2 in our own atmosphere. An atmosphere consisting mostly of phosphorus might be hard on us humans, but it’d likely be just fine for the siliconites. The analog to C02 would be SiS2, silicon sulfide.

I’m not sure how silicon would do as a chain at 1100 degrees if it was isolated from lower-level chemical elements. Probably not as well, after all, you are dealing with a valence shell that’s one shell further away from the nucleus than carbon. But once you eliminate all these reactive impurities, who’s to say?

What I’d love to do is build a nicely insulated ceramic chamber, dump a lot of these second-level elements into it, heat it up to 2000 degrees to vent off the light elements, then let it cook for a few years around 1100 degrees. Make a “freezing side” of the box at 900 degrees, and a hot side at 1150 to give it a nice thermal gradient. Add a spark-gap generator. Then watch and see what grows. Repeat Urey and Miller’s 1-week experiment, but on silicon. Would we get analog-silicon amino acids? I’d bet on it. Analog RNA? Analog life? Who knows? But it would sure be cool to find out.

Mass-creation From the Vacuum – Heisenberg Meets the 3-body Problem

March 27, 2010

I’ve been considering the conundrum of Mass-Energy conservation and the violation of this principle in light of the Big Bang. One of my friends described this as the “elephant in the room” with regard to the law of mass-energy conservation.

So we have to wonder if there are any existing mechanics that allow violation of this law. The first one that pops to mind is the Heisenberg time-energy relationship that allows virtual particles to pop into existence from the vacuum; the shorter the time, the greater the potential mass-energy. Sadly, the brief existence is confined to a duration so short that it’s impossible to detect, although certain effects, such as the Casimir effect, strongly suggest that virtual particle interactions are quite real (look it up on Wikipedia, if you’re curious).

Now put two of these virtual particle pair-productions adjacent to each other when they pop into existence (this has to happen some tiny fraction of the time) and the 4 particles produced are suddenly involved with the chaotic 4-body problem, interacting in such a way as to acquire stability before disappearing from our universe, potentially creating any variety of subatomic particles and pairs, half matter and half antimatter.

The net result is a continuous mass-creation with high-energy particles appearing from nowhere.

Your initial response will be, “Yes, but the antiparticles are going to combine with regular particles and annihilate a mass equal to that created.” Absolutely true. However, the energy produced will not be dragged back down into the closed-loop non-existence of a virtual particle. It will be released as two high-energy photons that go zipping around the universe and adding to the overall mass-energy of the universe, adding its little contribution to the light-pressure factor of its expansion.

Perhaps Fred Hoyle’s discounted steady-state universe still has a viable solution, and perhaps if we go back in time toward a Big Bang, we will find out that this mechanism decreases the mass of the universe so that there is no Big Bang at all, just a slow and continuous chaotic production of mass energy from the vacuum.

Perhaps it starting not with a bang, but a whisper (apologies to T.S. Eliot).