Posts Tagged ‘science’

Photons Dancing on the Head of a Match

May 1, 2014

Who cares about angels on the end of a pin? Let’s get real; how many photons are there on the end of a match?

There’s a lot of data out there to help us calculate this; one article says that the human eye can detect a candle in the dark at 30 miles. Isn’t that something? The same article says it takes at least 54 photons just for the human eye to register an event. So that match (or candle) has to get 54 photons into that fraction of your eye that actually receives and focuses the photons. But the whole eye doesn’t actually receive the photons; it’s just the black opening in the middle. The largest it ever gets is about 7 millimeters diameter, which is 38.5 square millimeters in area, or .385 square centimeters.

How many events can the human eye see in one second? If we’re looking at the match from 30 miles away, and it looks continuous, then we are receiving over 50 frames a second (though the human eye has been recorded as being able to discern and identify an image in 1/255th of a second, we’ll be conservative). If the image were less than 50 times per second, we would detect a choppiness in the image; still, overlap in the match’s photon emissions could turn a choppy image into a smooth one. But lets assume we get a continuous 54 photons, all the time, at least 50 times a second; anything less would look like a flicker off.

Now we have everything we need to calculate how many photons are coming off the head of a match!

Just put an eyeball…or just the iris, the bit that receives the light, in every spot in a 30 mile radius, add up the total number of irises, multiply by the 50 times-per-second, times the 54 photons per eyeball, and we should have the number we need.

The sphere of irises is 4*pi*r-squared. Or 4*3.14*30*30 = 11,310 square miles, or 29,292 square kilometers. Or 29,292,000,000 square meters. Or 292,920,000,000,000 square centimeters. Since each dissected eyeball (just the iris, you see) only takes up .385 square centimeters, that’s about 760,000,000,000,000 irises stuffed carefully into the perimeter of the sphere to capture all the photons.  Just as a point of interest, that’s about 50,000 times the number of human eyeballs on Earth. Guess we’ll be dissecting all the other animals, too. May as well start with fisheyes; they’re sort of gross to begin with.

Each of those eyes is gathering 54 photons at least 50 times a second, so we get to multiply the 760 million million by another 250-ish, giving us a grand total of about 190,000 million million photons off the head of a match every second. Or, just because I like a lot of zeros, 190,000,000,000,000,000 photons. Every second. From a freakin’ MATCH HEAD. We are awash in a photon bath.

Now, leave the darkness of night, and realize that when you walk outside, you are no longer looking at one tiny spot radiating onto 190 quadrillion eyes, now you have a hemisphere of 30 cubic miles of daylight radiating onto your eyeball. Well, okay, you can’t look at the hemisphere all at the same time. Your turn to do the math! How many photons are hitting your eye every second? Hint; it’s an absolute crapload of photons.

Silicon Based Lifeforms vs Creationists

July 23, 2010

Ever since the ground-breaking experiments of Urey and Miller, who proved it was possible for amino acids to spontaneously arise out of a laboratory-controlled “primordial soup” of inorganic chemicals, scientists have been racing to take the next step and find out just how the amino acids can become self-replicating organic strings. The importance of this is obvious. This would give us a continuous lineage from rocks to humans. Evolution in a nutshell, a complete package end-to-end with which to torment creationists.

Unfortunately, lacking this final detail in the string of continuity, mutation, and speciation, creationists will cling to this last vestige of their delusion like a drowning man rubbing a rabbit’s foot. Of course, they will do that anyway, even with absolute proof that evolution can stand on its own, and continue to perpetuate the lie that evolution is still grounded in Lamarkian concepts. Anyone who’s ever been on the receiving end of a Jehovah’s Witness tract knows just what I’m talking about – their sum total knowledge of evolution comes from the latest theories of the 1880s and the rants from their apparently uneducated pastors.

Even if scientists complete the experimental foundations of the RNA World, there will still remain skeptics who will blame the results on contamination from external sources, unless, of course, the carbon-based replicating organism is completely alien to anything that currently exists. But the odds of that are considered low; carbon compounds like to react with other carbon compounds in very specific ways that restrict the options available.

But why go this route? Why not select a version of life that can’t possibly be contaminated by Earthly life forms? For example, silicon (versus carbon) based life? Something that will provide incontrovertible proof that life can arise spontaneously in some of the nastiest conditions the universe can lob at us.

I’ve read a bit about the possibility of silicon-based life forms. Most people don’t think it’s possible, usually based on speculation about how silicon bonds with oxygen and can’t properly build long, strong chains like carbon does (not completely true – look up polysilanes). Most of these articles assume certain things; that oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and other low-level atoms are still going to be around for silicon to bond with, and that the temperature of the silicon-based chemistry will have to be about the same as our own. Silicon doesn’t do well at this temperature. Too hard, too short a chain, blah, blah, blah.

But to create a true silicon analog of the carbon based world, we have to eliminate the whole top line of the periodic chart (barring lithium – we need that). This might seem to be a crazy task until we look at Venus, which at a mere 600 degrees C, and with the aid of ultraviolet rays, has lost most of its hydrogen and oxygen into space. It has very little water left. However, for a silicon analog to exist, with no carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen or helium to pollute its atmosphere, we would need a fairly small planet with a surface temperature of over 1000 degrees C. Taking a look at the next row down on our periodic charts, we can see that the analog to H20 would be Li2S, oceans of dilithium sulfide (not to be confused with dilithium crystals, which are used in starships). This happens to melt at about 950 degrees C. The second row in the chart below nitrogen is phosphorus. P2 gas forms from P4 at over 800 C, which works just great for us as our analog to N2 in our own atmosphere. An atmosphere consisting mostly of phosphorus might be hard on us humans, but it’d likely be just fine for the siliconites. The analog to C02 would be SiS2, silicon sulfide.

I’m not sure how silicon would do as a chain at 1100 degrees if it was isolated from lower-level chemical elements. Probably not as well, after all, you are dealing with a valence shell that’s one shell further away from the nucleus than carbon. But once you eliminate all these reactive impurities, who’s to say?

What I’d love to do is build a nicely insulated ceramic chamber, dump a lot of these second-level elements into it, heat it up to 2000 degrees to vent off the light elements, then let it cook for a few years around 1100 degrees. Make a “freezing side” of the box at 900 degrees, and a hot side at 1150 to give it a nice thermal gradient. Add a spark-gap generator. Then watch and see what grows. Repeat Urey and Miller’s 1-week experiment, but on silicon. Would we get analog-silicon amino acids? I’d bet on it. Analog RNA? Analog life? Who knows? But it would sure be cool to find out.